Laboratory of Optical and Quasioptical Investigation and Optoelectronic Devices Design for Infocommunication Systems

EU-STCU #3222 Project

Executive summary

The modern optoelectronic and laser devices as well as the novel control systems developments require a search for new efficient optical materials parameters of which would be highly sensitive to external influences (electric field, mechanical stress or acoustic wave). One of the key problems that arise on this way is an essential anisotropy of the parametrical optical effects. Therefore, the search for the interaction geometries that would possess by extreme (maximum) values of the electro-, piezo- or acousto-optical transformations plays an important role in a design of highly efficient modulators and deflectors. Accordingly, the solution of these problems mainly consists in development of new optimization procedures having in the purpose to increase the application efficiency of the materials beeing used as sensors or as active elements of different optoelectronic devices, such e.g. as optical modulators and deflectors. As we know, until now there are no methods for the optimization of sample geometry regarding the anisotropic low-symmetry materials, especially in the case when parametrical optical effects are described by third- or higher order rank tensors, i.e. the electro-, piezo- or acousto-optical effects are being considered. From the one hand the problems are frequently related to incomplete data set (missing data about the all non-zero component of the electro-, piezo- and elastooptical tensors), from the other hand they are related to the complexity of analytical description due to spatial anisotropy of such effects.

Main Point

The main point of the projectisdesign procedure of the interaction efficiency optimization between the light and applied electric field, mechanical stress or acoustic wave in anisotropic materials of all the symmetry classes. It will be guaranteed an efficiency improvement of the elaborated optical modulators and deflectors, which work on electro-, piezo- or acoustooptical modulation of light.

Objects of studies: electro-, piezo- or acoustooptical effects in crystal materials.

Used technical approaches:

  1. The manufacturing method of necessary crystal cuts for measurement of their optical parameters, which included the following operations: cutting of crystals on basis of the X-ray structure analysis; grinding by free abrasive; mechanical polishing and chemic-mechanical polishing.
  2. The method for crystal testing on basis of visual observation of interference conoscopy figures in polarized light.
  3. The interferometric-turning method for measurement of crystal materials refractive indices.
  4. The dynamical echo-pulse method for determination of longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves in crystals and method for calculation of all matrix terms for elastic and piezooptical coefficients in crystals of various symmetry classes.
  5. The interferometric method of the two-fold measurement and immersion-interferometric procedure for determination of all the components of piezooptical effect tensor and necessary coefficients of elastic complience in crystal materials of different symmetry classes.
  6. The polarization-optical method for measurement of crystal piezooptical coefficients on birefringence base.
  7. Procedure for calculation as for absolute magnitude and for sing of all tensor components for elastooptical effect in crystal materials of various symmetry classes at different thermodynamic conditions.
  8. Procedure of main technical parameters investigations: a) central frequency of key signal and diffractive efficiency for acousto-optic modulator or b) static half-wave voltage and modulation frequency band according to electro-optic light modulators.
  9. Spatial anisotropy 3D-analysis of parametric optic effects in crystalline materials and method of correspondent optimization of piezo- and acousto-interaction geometryof light in such materials.

During reporting period the following five stageswere curried out: 1) improvement of experimental equipment and providing with needed crystals; 2) experimental measurements of selected crystals; 3) methods and software elabo-ration for spatial anisotropy 3D-analysis of parametrical effects in low-symmetric crystals; 4) optimization of electro-, piezo- and acousto-optic interaction geometry; 5) design of high effective acoustooptical modulator and its testing.

Main technical achievement during reported period

  1. Concerning modernization and design of equipments:
    • the equipment for testing of optical quality of experimental samples on basis of observation of interference conoscopy figures in polarized light was realized;
    • modernization of stress equipment on basis of Mach-Zehnder interferometer for more accurate determination of all the tensor component of piezooptical effectin low-symmetry crystals was finished, a possible obstacles at piezooptical coefficients measurements using the interferometric equipment was removed;
    • the needed components were developed and manufactured as well as mounting of the equipment based on Michel-son interferometer for measurements of crystal materials absolute electrooptical coefficients was carried out;
    • the equipment for measurement of acoustical wave velocity in anisotropic crystals of different class symmetry by the dynamic echo-pulse method was modernized;
    • the interferometric-turning equipment for more accurate determination of absolute refraction indices for different class symmetry crystals was automatized, the corresponding software was designed.
  2. Concerning a growth or a purchase of needed crystals:
    • the X-ray structure analysis, cutting, grinding and polishing of work samples from monocrystals of langasite (La3Ga5SiO14), lithium niobate (LiNbO3) of Ukrainian, Russian and Japan production, LiNbO3 doped with MgO, calcium tungstate (CaWO4) were conducted.
  3. Concerning to design of methods and conducting of experimental measurements of selected crystals:
    • the interferometric method of two-fold measurements was improved for determination of all the piezo-optical effect tensor components in different symmetry classes crystal materials;
    • immersion-interferometric method was modernized for determination of elastic coefficients in crystal materials;
    • the calculation method based on two-fold measurements for the all coefficients of linear electro-optic effect matrix was designed in crystal of non-inversion symmetry classes;
    • the researches of photoelasticity of langasite, pure and doped with MgO lithium niobate, calcium tungstate crystals were conducted by polarization-optical method;
    • on the acoustic setting the necessary velocities of sound-waves were measured and on their basis all piezoelectric and elastic coefficients in crystals of langasite, lithium niobate (LiNbO3) of Ukrainian, Russian and Japan production, LiNbO3 doped with MgOwere calculated;
    • determination of all the tensor component of piezooptical effect in langasite, lithium niobate (LiNbO3) of Ukrainian, Russian and Japan production, LiNbO3 doped with MgO, calcium tungstate was conducted on modified stress equipment on basis of Mach-Zehnder interferometer.
  4. Concerning to methods and software elaboration for spatial anisotropy 3D-analysis of parametrical effects in low-symmetric crystals:
    • method was elaborated and relationships were deduced for filling of linear electro-optic coefficient matrix in non-centrosymmetric crystals. Approbation of the method on model lithium niobate and lithium niobate doped with MgO crystals was conducted;
    • method was improved and correspondent software was elaborated for indicative surface construction of electro-, piezo- and acoustooptical effects in crystal materials with various symmetry classes;
    • indicative surfaces for piezo- and elasto-optic effects for langasite, pure and doped with MgO lithium niobate crystals were constructed;
    • principles were elaborated and indicative surfaces were built on example of langasite, pure and doped with MgO lithium niobate crystals;
    • method of spatial distribution calculation for figure of merit was designed.
  5. Concerningtooptimization of electro-, piezo- and acousto-optic interaction geometry:
    • the development of technique for calculation of electro-optical interaction efficiency improvement for crystals of non-centrosymmetrical symmetry class and corresponding approbation on the example of pure and doped with MgO lithium niobate crystals have been continued;
    • the works in favour of optimization conduction of piezo-optical interaction geometry for investigated crystal materialsLiNbO3, LiNbO3:MgO and langasite were carried out;
    • elaboration of the technique and determination of extremum values of figure of merit for langasite, LiNbO3and LiNbO3:MgO crystal materials was conducted.
  6. Concerning to design of high effective acoustooptical modulator and its testing:
    • samples from lithium niobate crystals with extreme values of acoutooptic figure of merit for the cases of isotropic and anisotropic light diffraction were prepared;
    • by experimental Dixon method on created acoutooptic equipment the figures of merit for the cases of isotropic and anisotropic light diffraction were controlled at longitudinal acoustic wave propagation in prepared samples;
    • working model of high effective acoustooptical modulator was designed and created as well as estimation of its efficiency was carried out.

Cooperation with foreign collaborators

Foreign collaborators (Univ. Prof. Dr. Wilfried Schranz, Institut fur Experimental Physik, Universitat Wien, Austriaòà Dr. hab B.SAHRAOUI, Universite D"Angers, France) were acquainted with project conducting, current consultations and results discussions are fulfilled with them by e-mail, the results of investigations were published in co-authorship with foreign partners in journals “Optics & LaserTechnology”,“OpticalMaterial”and“Optics & Lasers in Engineering”. In frame work of STCU arrival of Mr. PinLong from Canady, president of O/ELAND firm was organized on November 15, 2005. He was acquainted with our laboratory and scientific investigations conducting in the project.

On the project materials the oraland poster reports were done on the following conferences:

  1. 2nd International Conference on Advanced Optoelectronics and Lasers CAOL’2005, September 12–17, 2005, Yalta, Crimea, Ukraine
  2. International Conference “Modern problems of radio engineering, telecommunications and computer science” TCSET’2006, 28 February - 4 March 2006, Lviv-Slavske, Ukraine
  3. Scientific-technical Workshop of teaching staff of Lviv Polytechnic National University, April 2-4, 2006 Lviv
  4. International Conference OPTO 2006, 30 May - 1 June 2006, Nurnberg, Germany
  5. International IEEE East-West Design & TestWorkshop (EWDTW’06), September 15-19, 2006, Sochi, Russia
  6. Symposium on Photonics Technologies for 7th Framework Program, October 12-14, 2006, Wroclaw, Poland
  7. International Conference CADSM’2007, February 20-24, 2007, Lviv-Polyana, Ukraine
  8. Celebration tenth Scientific-technical Workshop teaching staff of Lviv Polytechnic National University, April 3-5, 2006 Lviv, Ukraine
  9. 13th InternationalSENSOR Conference, 22 - 24May 2007, Nurnberg, Germany
  10. InternationalConference «Oxide materials of electronic engineering – fabrication, properties, application», May 28-30, 2007, Lviv, Ukraine
  11. InternationalConference “CRYSTALMATERIAL’2007”, September 17-20, 2007, Kharkiv, Ukraine
  12. International Conference «Functional Materials» ICFM’2007, October 1–6, 2007, Partenit, Crimea, Ukraine

Publications

During the report period such scientific papers were published:

  1. Andrushchak A.S., Bobitski Ya.V., Kaidan M.V., Mytsyk B.G., Kityk A.V. and Schranz W. Two-fold interferometric measurements of piezo-optic constants: application to β-BaB2O4 crystals // Optics & LagerTechnology.-2005.-V.37.-P.319-328;
  2. Andrushchak A.S., Bobitski Ya.V., Kaidan M.V., Tybinka B.V. Spatial analysis of isotropic and anisotropic diffraction of light by transverse acoustic waves in barium beta-borate crystals // Ukr. J. Phys. – 2005.-V.50. – N.1.– P. 26-33;
  3. Kaidan M.V., Tybinka B.V., Andrushchak A.S., Pavlykevych M.Y. Spatial distribution of piezo-inductiones change of optical path difference on example of b-ÂàÂ2Î4 crystals// Modelling and information technology. Collected science proceeding ofG.E.Pukhov's Institute of Modelling Problems in Power Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. – 2005. – V. 31. – P. 123-129;
  4. Andrushchak A.S. Efficiency increasing of electro- and acousto-optical light modulators as main component of fiber-optical system for information transmission // Modern problems of radio engineering, telecommunications and computer science-Proceeding of the International Conference TCSET’2006, 28 February- 4 March 2006, Lviv-Slavske, Ukraine. – P.466-468;
  5. Tybinka B.V., Ostrovskij I.P., Andrushchak A.S. Novel computeraided interferometric equipment for refractive index determination of isotropic and anisotropic materials // Proceedings of International Conference OPTO 2006, 30 May - 1 June 2006, Nurnberg, Germany, – P.153-158.
  6. Kajdan Mykola, Laba Hanna, Ostrovskij Igor, Demyanyshyn Nataliya, Andrushchak Anatolij, Mytsyk Bohdan Optimization for electro- and acousto-optical interactions in low-symmetric anisotropic materials // Proceeding of IEEE East-West Design & Test Workshop (EWDTW’06), Sochi, Russia, September 15-19, 2006. – P.179-183.
  7. Mykola V. Kaidan, Hanna P. Laba, Nataliya M. Demyanyshyn, Anatoliy S. Andrushchak, Bohdan G. Mytsyk Anisotropy of piezo-, elasto- and acousto-optic properties of La3Ga5SiO14 crystal // Proceedings of the Symposium on Photonics Technologies for 7th Framework Program, Wroclaw 12-14 October 2006 – P. 396-399.
  8. Mykola V. Kaidan, Hanna P. Laba, Natalya M. Demyanyshyn, Anatolij S. Andrushchak, Bohdan G. Mytsyk Efficiency increasing of electro- and acousto-optical modulators as main component of optical communication network // Proceedings of the Symposium on Photonics Technologies for 7th Framework Program, Wroclaw 12-14 October 2006 – P. 562-565.
  9. Anatolij S. Andrushchak, Ivan D. Karbovnyck, Ihor P. Ostrovskij. Automatic interferometric equipment for refractive index determination of isotropic and anisotropic materials // Proceedings of the Symposium on Photonics Technologies for 7th Framework Program, Wroclaw 12-14 October 2006 – P. 525-528.
  10. MytsykB.G. and Dem’yanyshyn N.M. Piezo-optic Surfaces of Lithium Niobate crystals // Crystallography Reports.-2006.-V.51, No.4.-P.653-660.
  11. Tybinka B.V., Ostrovskij I.P., Andrushchak A.S. Automatization of the measurable process of refractive indices for wafer-shaped plate with optical materials by the interferometrical turning’s method // HeraldNation. Univ. “Lvivs’ka Politechnika” (Electronics).- 2006.-¹558.-C.128-132.
  12. Andrushchak A.S., Demyanyshyn N.M., Mytsyk B.H., Solskii I.M. Photoelasticity of langasite crystals (La3Ga5SiO14) // Herald Nation. Univ. “Lvivs’ka Politechnika” (Electronics) .- 2006.-¹558.-C.86-91.
  13. M.V. Kaidan, B.V. Tybinka, A.V. Zadorozhna, W. Schranz, B. Sahraoui, A.S. Andrushchak, A.V. Kityk The Indicative Surfaces of Photoelastic Effect for Cs2HgCl4 Biaxial Crystals // OpticalMaterial.-2007.-V.29.-P.475-480.
  14. Anatoliy Andrushchak, Ihor Tchaikovsky, Nataliya Demyanyshyn, Stepan Dumych, Oleh Yurkevych, Mykola Kaidan, Hanna Laba, Bohdan Mytsyk Optimization technique for piezo- and acousto-optical interactions geometry of light in anisotropic materials for example of pure and MgO-doped lithium niobate crystals // Proceeding of the International Conference CADSM’2007, 20-24 February2007, Lviv-Polyana, Ukraine. – P.18-22.
  15. Mytsyk B.G., Andrushchak A.S., Gasjkevych G.I. Complete study of piezooptical effect in langasite crystals // Ukr. phys. journal. - 2007.-V.52, No.8. – P. 800-809.
  16. Vynnyk D.M., Voronjak T.I., Foti Daniel, Andrushchak A.S. Energetic losses as a result of excitation, propagation and interchanging with light of super high frequency volume acoustical waves in lithium niobate crystals // Simulation and information technologies. ProceedingofInstitute of simulation problems of National Academy of Science of Ukraine. – 2007. – Vol. 42. – P. 54-60.
  17. Voronyak T.I., Yurkevych O.V., AndrushchakA.S. Control technique of geometry of optical surfaces of crystal material samples // Proceeding of Lviv Polytechnic. Electronics.-2007.-No.592.-P.157-163.
  18. Andrushchak A.S.,Mytsyk B.G., Dem’yanyshyn N.M., Kaidan M.V., Yurkevych O.V. Completing of linear electrooptical effect matrixes in crystals of random symmetry classes. Testing of method on lithium niobate crystals // Proceeding of Lviv Polytechnic. Electronics.-2007.-No.592.-P.148-156.

Patents

  1. Andrushchak A.S., Ostrovskij I.P., Tybinka B.V. Method determine of refractive indices for optical materials // Patent ofUkraine N 17929 from 16.10.2006.

Abstracts

  1. D.M. Vynnyk, T.I. Voronjak, A.S. Andrushchak. Excitation and propagation of volume ultrahigh acoustic waves in lithium niobate crystals and their interaction with light // Abstract of Scientific conference of professor-lector staff of Lviv Polytechnical NationalUniversity, April 3-5, 2007, Lviv. – P. 14.
  2. Ò.². Voronjak, O.V. Yurkevych, A.S. Andrushchak. Technology of control of optical surface sample geometry for crystalline materials // Abstract of Scientific conference of professor-lector staff of Lviv Polytechnical National University, April 3-5, 2007, Lviv. – P. 15.

Submitted for publication:

  1. A.S. Andrushchak, B.V. Tybinka, I.P. Ostrovskij, W. Schranzand, A.V. Kityk Automated interferometric technique for express analysis of the refractive indices in isotropic and anisotropic optical materials // Optics & LagerTechnology.
  2. Laba H.P., Kaidan M.V., Karbovnyk I.D., Dumych S.S., Yurkevych O.V., Solskii I.M., Andrushchak A.S. Complete characterization and 3D-analysis of electro-, piezo- and acoustooptical effects spatial anisotropy in crystalline materials. Part 1. Complåting of elastic and piezoelectric coefficients matrix for pure and MgO-doped lithium niobate crystals // Functional Materials

Prospects of further developments

The final project result – design procedure of the interaction efficiency optimization between the light and applied electric field, mechanical stress or acoustic wave in anisotropic materials of all the symmetry classes is a high technology and scientifically capacious product. That is why it will be competitive and good advertisement company with a corresponding marketing supply will provide a large demand. One expects also, that small companies are not interested in buying of the final product, but will have a possibility to use our service for measuring all tensor components of elastic, piezoelectric, electro-, piezo- and elasto-optical effects in crystals on our own base. Therefore it is necessary to provide the conditions for production and sales as well as the financial support of service for all potential consumers. To provide this the following steps are expected to be done.

  1. Market research of potential consumers interesting by our product or service in Ukraine and outside.
  2. This task was mainly decided during the project fulfillment.

  3. Business relations with potential consumers and marketing support of the product and service:
    • the business relations will be set according to the list of potential product consumers having been created during the project fulfillment;
    • we will study the companies concerning a specific of their needs, namely such as required special investigation conditions or technical characteristics of the anisotropy crystalline materials and devices created on their base in order to prepare a contract or a business-plan which could solve all their problems;
    • the further steps will be undertaken in the intellectual rights protection, among this we will analyze a possibility of licensing the developed innovations and prepare foreign patents on the designed procedure;
    • to advertise of the final product and service the further approbation of the design project will be run during international scientific practical conferences and seminars, in publications (national and international journals).
  4. The program of the product introduction and market realization of the corresponding service
  5. Switching to the program of the product introduction and its realization on a corresponding market service will depend on the stock of orders. Most probably we expect to get the orders on a rather limited amount of the product. Therefore if such order occurs the following steps will be undertaken:

    • number of actions will be carried out in the cooperation with the metrology service to develop a metrology support of the developed procedure;
    • we will analyze possibilities of buying the necessary materials and parts for a serial production of high effective crystalline materials for acousto-opitcal light cells design;
    • we will carry out the negotiations with potential producers, for example NVO “Karat”, Lviv about small serial productions of the product;
    • after the financial contract with a potential consumer would be signed a corresponding production process will be organized.
    • simultaneously, we will try to get an additional financial support for a further modernization and improvement of proposed procedure via application on grants in EU, USA, Japan and other countries.

The results of this design and construction project may be interested to those companies, which deal with the production of devices containing functional elements made of anisotropic materials, namely such as Ukrainian plants as “Central construction bureau “Arsenal”, Kyiv, Open Action Association “Tochprylad”, Kharkiv, “Astroprylad”, Kyiv; American IntraAction Corp., Quanta Tech. Inc, Electro-Optical Products Corp., AOTF Technology Inc., Aurora Photonics Inc., Photonic System Inc. (PSI); Germany GTU LaserTechnic Gmbh; Chinese Castech-Phoenix Inc.(CASIX); French A.A. Opto-Electronique, English Gooch & Housego PLC; Russian Open Action Association “Concern Russian defence technologies, Moscow, Holo Great, St. Petersburg and others, or also companies as producers of optical crystal materials interesting in express analysis of their optical parameters, for example: Ukrainian NT Concern “Institute of monocrystals” Kharkiv, Production-research union “KARAT”, Lviv; ELENT A, Dnipropetrovsk; Russian Laboratory of crystal growth in the Institute of mineralogy and petrography, Novosibirsk, ELAN+, St. Petersburg; Swede Hamamatsu Photonics Norden AB; American Isomet Corp., NEOS Technologies Inc., Crystal Technology Inc. and others.